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NIGEL ALLENSeptember 06, 2019
What a Difference
September 06, 2019

As the insurance industry’s Dive In Festival continues to gather momentum, EXPOSURE examines the factors influencing the speed at which the diversity and inclusion dial is moving September 2019 marks the fifth Dive In Festival, a global movement in the insurance sector to support the development of inclusive workplace cultures. An industry phenomenon, it has ballooned in size from a London-only initiative in 2015 attracting 1,700 people to an international spectacle spanning 27 countries and reaching over 9,000 people in 2018. That the event should gather such momentum clearly demonstrates a market that is moving forward. There is now an industrywide acknowledgement of the need to better reflect the diversity of the customer base within the industry’s professional ranks. The Starting Point As Pauline Miller, head of talent development and inclusion (D&I) at Lloyd’s, explains, the insurance industry is a market that has, in the past, been slow to change its practitioner profile. “If you look at Lloyd’s, for example, for nearly three hundred years it was a men-only environment, with women only admitted as members in December 1969. “It’s about bringing together the most creative group of people that represent different ways of thinking that have evolved out of the multiple factors that make them different” Pauline Miller Lloyd’s “You also have to recognize that the insurance industry is not as far along the diversity and inclusion journey compared to other sectors,” she continues. “I previously worked in the banking industry, and diversity and inclusion had been an agenda issue in the organization for a number of years. So, we must acknowledge that this is a journey that will require multiple more steps before we really begin breaking down barriers.” However, she is confident the insurance industry can quickly make up ground. “By its very nature, the insurance market lends itself to the spread of the D&I initiative,” Miller believes. “We are a relationship-based business that thrives on direct contact, and our day-to-day activities are based upon collaboration. We must leverage this to help speed up the creation of a more diverse and inclusive environment.” The positive effects of collaboration are already evident in how this is evolving. Initiatives like Dive In, a weeklong focus on diversity and inclusion, within other financial sectors have tended to be confined to individual organizations, with few generating the level of industrywide engagement witnessed within the insurance sector. However, as Danny Fisher, global HR business partner and EMEA HR manager at RMS, points out, for the drive to gain real traction there must be marketwide consensus on the direction it is moving in. “There is always a risk,” he says, “that any complex initiative that begins with such positive intent can become derailed if there is not an understanding of a common vision from the start, and the benefits it will deliver. “There also needs to be better understanding and acknowledgement of the multitude of factors that may have contributed to the uniformity we see across the insurance sector. We have to establish why this has happened and address the flaws in our industry contributing to it.” It can be argued that the insurance industry is still composed of a relatively homogeneous group of people. In terms of gender disparity, ethnic diversity, and people of different sexual orientations, from different cultural or social backgrounds, or with physical or mental impairments, the industry recognizes a need to improve.  Diversity is the range of human differences, including but not limited to race, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, social class, physical ability or attributes, religious or ethical values system, national origin, and political beliefs. “As a market,” Miller agrees, “there is a tendency to hire people similar to the person who is recruiting. Whether that’s someone of the same gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation or from the same university or social background.” “You can end up with a very uniform workforce,” adds Fisher, “where people look the same and have a similar view of the world, which can foster ‘groupthink’ and is prone to bias and questionable conclusions. People approach problems and solutions in the same way, with no one looking at an alternative — an alternative that is often greatly needed. So, a key part of the diversity push is the need to generate greater diversity of thought.” The challenge is also introducing that talent in an inclusive way that promotes the effective development of new solutions to existing and future problems. That broad palette of talent can only be created by attracting and retaining the best and brightest from across the social spectrum within a framework in which that blend of skills, perspectives and opinions can thrive. “Diversity is not simply about the number of women, ethnicities, people with disabilities or people from disadvantaged backgrounds that you hire,” believes Miller. “It’s about bringing together the most creative group of people that represent different ways of thinking that have evolved out of the multiple factors that make them different.” Moving the Dial There is clearly a desire to make this happen and strong evidence that the industry is moving together. Top-level support for D&I initiatives coupled with the rapid growth of industrywide networks representing different demographics are helping firm up the foundations of a more diverse and inclusive marketplace.  But what other developments are needed to move the dial further? “We have to recognize that there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ to this challenge,” says Miller. “Policies and strategies must be designed to create an environment in which diversity and inclusion can thrive, but fundamentally they must reflect the unique dynamics of your own organization. “We also must ensure we are promoting the benefits of a career in insurance in a more powerful and enticing way and to a broader audience,” she adds. “We operate in a fantastic industry, but we don’t sell it enough. And when we do get that diversity of talent through the door, we have to offer a workplace that sticks, so they don’t simply walk straight back out again.  “For example, someone from a disadvantaged community coming through an intern program may never have worked in an office environment before, and when they look around are they going to see people like themselves that they can relate to? What role models can they connect with? Are we prepared for that?” For Fisher, steps can also be taken to change processes and modernize thinking and habits. “We have to be training managers in interview and evaluation techniques and discipline to keep unconscious bias in check. There has to be consistency with meaningful tests to ensure data-driven hiring decisions. “At RMS, we are fortunate to attract talent from around the world and are able to facilitate bringing them on board to add further variety in solving for complex problems. A successful approach for us, for example, has been accessing talent early, often prior to their professional career.” There is, of course, the risk that the push for greater diversity leads to a quota-based approach.  “Nobody wants this to become a tick-box exercise,” believes Miller, “and equally nobody wants to be hired simply because they represent a particular demographic. But if we are expecting change, we do need measurements in place to show how we are moving the dial forward. That may mean introducing realistic targets within realistic timeframes that are monitored carefully to ensure we are on track. “Ultimately,” she concludes, “what we are all working to do is to create the best environment for the broadest spectrum of people to come into what is a truly amazing marketplace. And when they do, offering a workplace that enables them to thrive and enjoy very successful careers that contribute to the advancement of our industry. That’s what we all have to be working toward.”

art of empowerment
art of empowerment
The Art of Empowerment
May 20, 2019

A new app – SiteIQ™ from RMS intuitively synthesizes complex risk data for a single location, helping underwriters and coverholders to rate and select risks at the touch of a button The more holistic view of risk a property underwriter can get, the better decisions they are likely to make. In order to build up a detailed picture of risk at an individual location, underwriters or agents at coverholders have, until now, had to request exposure analytics on single risks from their portfolio managers and brokers. Also, they had to gather supplementary risk data from a range of external resources, whether it is from Catastrophe Risk Evaluation and Standardizing Target Accumulations (CRESTA) zones to look-ups on Google Maps. This takes valuable time, requires multiple user licenses and can generate information that is inconsistent with the underlying modeling data at the portfolio level. As the senior manager at one managing general agent (MGA) tells EXPOSURE, this misalignment of data means underwriting decisions are not always being made with confidence. This makes the buildup of unwanted risk aggregation in a particular area a very real possibility, invariably resulting in “senior management breathing down my neck.” With underwriters in desperate need of better multi-peril data at the point of underwriting, RMS has developed an app, SiteIQ, that leverages sophisticated modeling information, as well as a view of the portfolio of locations underwritten, to be easily understood and quickly actionable at the point of underwriting. But it also goes further as SiteIQ can integrate with a host of data providers so users can enter any address into the app and quickly see a detailed breakdown of the natural and human-made hazards that may put the property at risk. SiteIQ allows the underwriter to generate detailed risk scores for each location in a matter of seconds In addition to synthesized RMS data, users can also harness third-party risk data to overlay responsive map layers such as, arson, burglary and fire-protection insights, and other indicators that can help the underwriter better understand the characteristics of a building and assess whether it is well maintained or at greater risk. The app allows the underwriter to generate detailed risk scores for each location in a matter of seconds. It also assigns a simple color coding for each hazard, in line with the insurer’s appetite: whether that’s green for acceptable levels of risk all the way to red for risks that require more complex analysis. Crucially, users can view individual locations in the context of the wider portfolio, helping them avoid unwanted risk aggregation and write more consistently to the correct risk appetite. The app goes a level further by allowing clients to use a sophisticated rules engine that takes into account the client’s underwriting rules. This enables SiteIQ to recommend possible next steps for each location — whether that’s to accept the risk, refer it for further investigation or reject it based on breaching certain criteria. “We decided to build an app exclusively for underwriters to help them make quick decisions when assessing risks,” explains Shaheen Razzaq, senior director at RMS. “SiteIQ provides a systematic method to identify locations that don’t meet your risk strategy so you can focus on finding the risks that do. “People are moving toward simple digital tools that synthesize information quickly,” he adds. “Underwriters tell us they want access to science without having to rely on others and the ability to screen and understand risks within seconds.” And as the underlying data behind the application is based on the same RMS modeling information used at the portfolio level, this guarantees data consistency at all points in the chain. “Deep RMS science, including data from all of our high-definition models, is now being delivered to people upstream, building consistency and understanding,” says Razzaq. SiteIQ has made it simple to build in the customer’s risk appetite and their view of risk. “One of the major advantages of the app is that it is completely configurable by the customer. This could be assigning red-amber-green to perils with certain scores, setting rules for when it should recommend rejecting a location, or integrating a customer’s proprietary data that may have been developed using their underwriting and claims experience — which is unique to each company.” Reporting to internal and external stakeholders is also managed by the app. And above all, says Razzaq, it is simple to use, priced at an accessible level and requires no technical skill, allowing underwriters to make quick, informed decisions from their desktops and tablet devices — and soon their smartphones. In complex cases where deeper analysis is required or when models should be run, working together with cat modelers will still be a necessity. But for most risks, underwriters will be able to quickly screen and filter risk factors, reducing the need to consult their portfolio managers or cat modeling teams. “With underwriting assistants a thing of the past, and the expertise the cat modelers offer being a valuable but finite resource, it’s our responsibility to understand risk at the point of underwriting,” one underwriter explains. “As a risk decision-maker, when I need to make an assessment on a particular location, I need access to insights in a timely and efficient manner, so that I can make the best possible decision based on my business,” another underwriter adds. The app is not intended to replace the deep analysis that portfolio management teams do, but instead reduce the number of times they are asked for information by their underwriters, giving them more time to focus on the job at hand — helping underwriters assess the most complex of risks. Bringing Coverholders on Board Similar efficiencies can be gained on cover-holder/delegated-authority business. In the past, there have been issues with cover-holders providing coverage that takes a completely different view of risk to the syndicate or managing agent that is providing the capacity. RMS has ensured SiteIQ works for coverholders, to give them access to shared analytics, managing agent rules and an enhanced view of hazards. It is hoped this will both improve underwriting decision-making by the coverholders and strengthen delegated-authority relationships. Coverholder business continues to grow in the Lloyd’s and company markets, and delegating authorities often worry whether the risks underwritten on their behalf are done so with the best possible information available. A better scenario is when the coverholder contacts the delegating authority to ask for advice on a particular location, but receiving multiple referral calls each day from coverholders seeking decisions on individual risks can be a drain on these growing businesses’ resources. “Delegated authorities obviously want coverholders to write business doing the proper risk assessments, but on the other hand, if the coverholder is constantly pinging the managing agent for referrals, they aren’t a good partner,” says a senior manager at one MGA. “We can increase profitability if we improve our current workflow, and that can only be done with smart tools that make risk management simpler,” he notes, adding that better risk information tools would allow his company to redeploy staff. A recent Lloyd’s survey found that 55 percent of managing agents are struggling with resources in their delegated-authority teams. And with the Lloyd’s Corporation also seeking to cleanse the market of sub-par performers after swinging to a loss in 2018, any solution that drives efficiency and enables coverholders to make more informed decisions can only help drive up standards. “It was actually an idea that stemmed from our clients’ underwriting coverholder business. If we can equip coverholders with these tools, managing agents will receive fewer phone calls while being confident that the coverholder is writing good business in line with the agreed rules,” says Razzaq. “Most coverholders lack the infrastructure, budget and human resources to run complex models. With SiteIQ, RMS can now offer them deeper analytics, by leveraging expansive model science, in a more accessible way and at a more affordable price.”

NIGEL ALLENMay 10, 2018
Capturing the Resilience
Capturing the Resilience
Capturing the Resilience Dividend
May 10, 2018

Incentivizing resilience efforts in vulnerable, low-income countries will require the ‘resilience dividend’ to be monetized and delivered upfront The role of the insurance industry and the wider risk management community is rapidly expanding beyond the scope of indemnifying risk. A growing recognition of shared responsibility is fostering a greater focus on helping reduce loss potential and support risk reduction, while simultaneously providing the post-event recovery funding that is part of the sector’s original remit. “There is now a concerted industrywide effort to better realize the resilience dividend,” believes Ben Brookes, managing director of capital and resilience solutions at RMS, “particularly in disaster-prone, low-income countries — creating that virtuous circle where resilience efforts are recognized in reduced premiums, with the resulting savings helping to fund further resilience efforts.” Acknowledging the Challenge In 2017, RMS conducted a study mapping the role of insurance in managing disaster losses in low- and low-middle-income countries on behalf of the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID). It found that the average annual economic loss across 77 countries directly attributable to natural disasters was US$29 billion. Further, simulations revealed a 10 percent probability that these countries could experience losses on the magnitude of US$47 billion in 2018, affecting 180 million people. Breaking these colossal figures down, RMS showed that of the potential US$47 billion hit, only 12 percent would likely be met by humanitarian aid with a further 5 percent covered by insurance. This leaves a bill of some US$39 billion to be picked up by some of the poorest countries in the world. The U.K. government has long recognized this challenge and to further the need in facilitating effective international collaboration across both public and private sectors to address a shortfall of this magnitude. In July 2017, U.K. Prime Minister Theresa May launched the Centre for Global Disaster Protection. The London-based institution brings together partners including DFID, the World Bank, civil society and the private sector to achieve a shared goal of strengthening the resilience capabilities of developing countries to natural disasters and the impacts of climate change. The Centre aims to provide neutral advice and develop innovative financial tools, incorporating insurance-specific instruments, that will enable better pre-disaster planning and increase the financial resilience of vulnerable regions to natural disasters. Addressing the International Insurance Society shortly after the launch, Lord Bates, the U.K. Government Minister of State for International Development, said that the aim of the Centre was to combine data, research and science to “analyze risk and design systems that work well for the poorest people” and involve those vulnerable people in the dialogue that helps create them. “It is about innovation,” he added, “looking at new ways of working and building new collaborations across the finance and humanitarian communities, to design financial instruments that work for developing countries.” A Lack of Incentive There are, however, multiple barriers to creating an environment in which a resilient infrastructure can be developed. “Resilience comes at a cost,” says Irena Sekulska, engagement manager at Vivid Economics, “and delivers long-term benefits that are difficult to quantify. This makes the development of any form of resilient infrastructure extremely challenging, particularly in developing countries where natural disasters hit disproportionally harder as a percentage of GDP.” The potential scale of the undertaking is considerable, especially when one considers that the direct economic impact of a natural catastrophe in a vulnerable, low-income country can be multiples of its GDP. This was strikingly demonstrated by the economic losses dealt out by Hurricanes Irma and Harvey across the Caribbean and the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, a one-in-ten-year loss that wiped out 120 percent of the country’s GDP. Funding is, of course, a major issue, due to the lack of fiscal capacity in many of these regions. In addition, other existing projects may be deemed more urgent or deserving of funding measures to support disaster preparedness or mitigate potential impacts. Limited on-the-ground institutional and technical capacity to deliver on resilience objectives is also a hindering factor, while the lack of a functioning insurance sector in many territories is a further stumbling block. “Another issue you often face,” explains Charlotte Acton, director of capital and resilience solutions at RMS, “is the misalignment between political cycles and the long-term benefits of investment in resilience. The reason is that the benefits of that investment are only demonstrated during a disaster, which might only occur once every 10, 20 or even 100 years — or longer.” Another problem is that the success of any resilience strategy is largely unobservable. A storm surge hits, but the communities in its path are not flooded. The winds tear through a built-up area, but the buildings stand firm. “The challenge is that by attempting to capture resilience success you are effectively trying to predict, monitor and monetize an avoided loss,” explains Shalini Vajjhala, founder and CEO of re:focus, “and that is a very challenging thing to do.” A Tangible Benefit “The question,” states Acton, “is whether we can find a way to monetize some of the future benefit from building a more resilient infrastructure and realize it upfront, so that it can actually be used in part to finance the resilience project itself. “In theory, if you are insuring a school against hurricane-related damage, then your premiums should be lower if you have built in a more resilient manner. Catastrophe models are able to quantify these savings in expected future losses, and this can be used to inform pricing. But is there a way we can bring that premium saving forward, so it can support the funding of the resilient infrastructure that will create it?” It is also about making the resilience dividend tangible, converting it into a return that potential investors or funding bodies can grasp. “The resilience dividend looks a lot like energy efficiency,” explains Vajjhala, “where you make a change that creates a saving rather than requires a payment. The key is to find a way to define and capture that saving in a way where the value is clear and trusted. Then the resilience dividend becomes a meaningful financial concept — otherwise it’s too abstract.” The dividend must also be viewed in its broadest context, demonstrating its value not only at a financial level in the context of physical assets, but in a much wider societal context, believes Sekulska. “Viewing the resilience dividend through a narrow, physical-damage-focused lens misses the full picture. There are multiple benefits beyond this that must be recognized and monetized. The ability to stimulate innovation and drive growth; the economic boost through job creation to build the resilient infrastructure; the social and environmental benefits of more resilient communities. It is about the broader service the resilient infrastructure provides rather than simply the physical assets themselves.” Work is being done to link traditional modeled physical asset damage to broader macroeconomic effects, which will go some way to starting to tackle this issue. Future innovation may allow the resilience dividend to be harnessed in other creative ways, including the potential increase in land values arising from reduced risk exposure. The Innovation Lab It is in this context that the Centre for Global Disaster Protection, in partnership with Lloyd’s of London, launched the Innovation Lab. The first lab of its kind run by the Centre, held on January 31, 2018, provided an open forum to stimulate cross-specialty dialogue and catalyze innovative ideas on how financial instruments could incentivize the development of resilient infrastructure and encourage building back better after disasters. Co-sponsored by Lloyd’s and facilitated by re:focus, RMS and Vivid Economics, the Lab provided an environment in which experts from across the humanitarian, financial and insurance spectrum could come together to promote new thinking and stimulate innovation around this long-standing issue. “The ideas that emerged from the Lab combined multiple different instruments,” explains Sekulska, “because we realized that no single financial mechanism could effectively monetize the resilience dividend and bring it far enough upfront to sufficiently stimulate resilience efforts. Each potential solution also combined a funding component and a risk transfer component.” “The solutions generated by the participants ranged from the incremental to the radical,” adds Vajjhala. “They included interventions that could be undertaken relatively quickly to capture the resilience dividend and those that would require major structural changes and significant government intervention to set up the required entities or institutions to manage the proposed projects.” Trevor Maynard, head of innovation at Lloyd’s, concluded that the use of models was invaluable in exploring the value of resilience compared to the cost of disasters, adding “Lloyd’s is committed to reducing the insurance gap and we hope that risk transfer will become embedded in the development process going forward so that communities and their hard work on development can be protected against disasters.” Monetizing the Resilience Dividend: Proposed Solutions “Each proposed solution, to a greater or lesser extent, meets the requirements of the resilience brief,” says Acton. “They each encourage the development of resilient infrastructure, serve to monetize a portion of the resilience dividend, deliver the resilience dividend upfront and involve some form of risk transfer.” Yet, they each have limitations that must be addressed collectively. For example, initial model analysis by RMS suggests that the potential payback period for a RESCO-based solution could be 10 years or longer. Is this beyond an acceptable period for investors? Could the development impact bond be scaled-up sufficiently to tackle the financial scope of the challenge? Given the donor support requirement of the insurance-linked loan package, is this a viable long-term solution? Would the complex incentive structure and multiple stakeholders required by a resilience bond scuttle its development? Will insurance pricing fully recognize the investments in resilience that have been made, an assumption underlying each of these ideas? RMS, Vivid Economics and re:focus are working together with Lloyd’s and the Centre to further develop these ideas, adding more analytics to assess the cost-benefit of those considered to be the most viable in the near term, ahead of publication of a final report in June. “The purpose of the Lab,” explains Vajjhala, “is not to agree upon a single solution, but rather to put forward workable solutions to those individuals and institutions that took part in the dialogue and who will ultimately be responsible for its implementation should they choose to move the idea forward.” And as Sekulska makes clear, evolving these embryonic ideas into full-fledged, effective financial instruments will take significant effort and collective will on multiple fronts. “There will need to be concerted effort across the board to convert these innovative ideas into working solutions. This will require pricing it fully, having someone pioneer it and take it forward, putting together a consortium of stakeholders to implement it.”

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